Tektronix xxxxxx Book
3.99 Mbytes (4187921 Bytes)
01 January 1981
Electronic document, no scan, very well readable.
18 October 2019
THE XYZs OF USING A SCOPE
If you watch an electrical engineer tackling a tough design project, or a service engineer troubleshooting a stubborn problem, you’ll see them grab a scope, fit probes or cables, and start turning knobs and setting
switches without ever seeming to glance at the front panel. To these experienced users, the oscilloscope is their most important tool but their minds are focused on solving the problem, not on using the scope.
Making oscilloscope measurements is second nature to them. It can be for you too, but before you can duplicate the ease with which they use a scope, you will need to concentrate on learning about the
scope itself: both how it works and how to make it work for you. The purpose of this primer is
to help you learn enough about oscilloscopes and oscilloscope measurements that you will be
able to use these measurement tools quickly, easily, and accurately.
The text is divided into two parts:
The first four chapters of Part I describe the functional parts of scopes and the controls associated with those parts. Then achapter on probes concludes the section.
Part II allows you to build on the knowledge and experience you gained from Part I. The signals you’ll see on the screen of an oscilloscope are identified by
waveshape and the terms for parts of waveforms are discussed. The next two chapters cover safety topics and instrument set-up procedures.
Then Chapter 9 describes measurement techniques.
Exercises there let you practice some basic measurements, and several examples of advanced
techniques that can help you make more accurate and convenient measurements are also included. The last chapter in this primer discusses oscilloscope
performance and its effects on your measurements.
Having a scope in front of you while working through the chapters is the best way to both learn
and practice applying your new knowledge. While the fundamentals will apply to almost any scope, the exercises and illustrations use two specific instruments: the Tektronix 2213
is a dual-channel, 60 MHz portable designed as an easy-to-use, lightweight,
general-purpose oscilloscope. The 2215
is a dual time base oscilloscope with more features
and capabilities; it’s included so you will understand dual time base scopes and appreciate
the additional measurement capabilities they offer.
5.23 Mbytes (5479609 Bytes)
01 January 1980
Scanned document, all readable.
18 October 2019
The Digital Storage Oscilloscope
This primer is about digital storage oscilloscopes: how they work; how you can make one work for you; and how to choose one that fits your needs.
The concepts governing the operations of digital storage scopes are described in the first chapter. The subjects include analog-to-digital conversion, digital time bases, sampling, aliasing, and the features some digital storage scopes use to counter aliasing.
The features of digital storage scopes are covered in the next chapter. General descriptions of how you might want to apply these features are also included there.
CHOOSING A DIGITAL STORAGE SCOPE is the last chapter. It describes how you can determine whether a digital scope will perform well enough for your needs. The subjects include measurement parameters you can use to make this judgement: Useful Storage Bandwidth — which tells you the maximum frequency sine wave a digital scope can store; and Useful Rise Time — which describes how fast a pulse the instruments will store accurately. There is also a discussion of timing measurements in which you’ll find that a digital storage oscilloscope can make timing measurements much finer than its sample interval. After reading this chapter you will have the performance indicators you need to choose an instrument and to make comparisons between digital and analog storage scopes. The chapter, and this booklet, ends with a summary of the features you’ll want to consider when you finally pick your digital storage scope.
Throughout the primer, digital storage scopes are compared to and contrasted with their closest cousins, the analog storage scopes, but some other storage instruments are neglected here. Chart recorders, scope cameras, waveform digitizers (or “transient recorders” as they are sometimes called), and oscillographs are all perfectly suited for their intended applications, but reviewing them here would have resulted in greater length than is practical in this primer.
2.59 Mbytes (2712280 Bytes)
01 December 2009
Electronic document, no scan, very well readable.
31 October 2019
XYZs of Oscilloscopes
Table of Contents
Introduction ... 4
Signal Integrity ... 5 - 6
The Significance of Signal Integrity ... 5
Why is Signal Integrity a Problem? ... 5
Viewing the Analog Origins of Digital Signals ... 6
The Oscilloscope ... 7 - 12
Understanding Waveforms & Waveform Measurements . .7
Types of Waves ... 8
Sine Waves ... 9
Square and Rectangular Waves ... 9
Sawtooth and Triangle
Waves ... 9
Step and Pulse Shapes ... 9
Periodic and Non-periodic Signals ... 9
Synchronous and Asynchronous Signals ... 9
Complex Waves ... 10
Waveform Measurements ... .11
Frequency and Period ... .11
Voltage ... 11
Amplitude ... 11
Phase ... 11
Waveform Measurements with Digital Oscilloscopes 12
Types of Oscilloscopes ... .13 - 17
Digital Storage Oscilloscopes ... 13
Digital Phosphor Oscilloscopes ... 15
Mixed Signal Oscilloscopes ... .16
Digital Sampling Oscilloscopes ... 17
The Systems and Controls of an Oscilloscope .18 - 31
Vertical System and Controls ... 19
Position and Volts per Division ... 19
Input Coupling ... 19
Bandwidth Limit ... 19
Bandwidth Enhancement ... 20
Horizontal System and Controls ... 20
Acquisition Controls ... 20
Acquisition Modes ... 20
Types of Acquisition Modes ... 21
Starting and Stopping the Acquisition System ... 21
Sampling ... 22
Sampling Controls ... 22
Real-time Sampling Method ... .22
Equivalent-time Sampling Method ... 24
Position and Seconds per Division ... 26
Time Base Selections ... 26
Zoom/Pan ... 26
Search ... .26
XY Mode ... 26
Z Axis ... 26
XYZ Mode ... 26
Trigger System and Controls ... 27
Trigger Position ... 29
Trigger Level and Slope ... 29
Trigger Sources ... 29
Trigger Modes ... 30
Trigger Coupling ... 30
Trigger Holdoff ... 30
Display System and Controls ... 31
Other Oscilloscope Controls ... 31
Math and Measurement Operations ... 31
Digital Timing and State Acquisitions ... .31
The Complete Measurement System ... 32 - 34
Passive Probes ... .
Active and Differential Probes ... .
Logicl Probes ... .
Specialty Probes ... .
Probe Accessories ... .
Performance Terms and Considerations ... 35 - 42
Bandwidth ... 35
Rise Time ... 36
Sample Rate ... 37
Waveform Capture Rate ... 38
Record Length ... 38
Triggering Capabilities ... 39
Effective Bits ... 39
Frequency Response ... 39
Vertical Sensitivity ... 39
Sweep Speed ... 39
Gain Accuracy ... 39
Horizontal Accuracy (Time Base) ... 39
Vertical Resolution (Analog-to-Digital Converter) ... 39
Timing Resolution (MSO) ... .40
Connectivity ... 40
Expandability ... 40
Ease-of-use ... 42
Operating the Oscilloscope ... 43 - 45
Proper Grounding ... .
Setting the Controls ... .
Calibrating the Instrument ... .
Connecting the Probes ... .
Compensating the Probes ... .
Oscilloscope Measurement Techniques ... 46 - 48
Voltage Measurements ... .
Time and Frequency Measurements ... .
Pulse Width and Rise Time Measurements ... .
Phase Shift Measurements ... .
Other Measurement Techniques ... .
Written Exercises ... 49 - 54
A. Vocabulary Exercises ... 49
B. Application Exercises ... 50
A. Vocabulary Exercises ... 51
B. Application Exercises ... .52
Answer Key ... .54
... 55 - 58